Legionella Now And In A Post COVID World

legionnaires disease

No doubt, the COVID-19 pandemic dealt a heavy blow on every continent in the world. Lockdowns were immediately imposed, which led to the closure of shops, offices, industries, malls, schools, and commercial buildings. However, normalcy will be restored, and gradually people will return to these buildings that were once vacant. To ensure a safe re-opening of offices and buildings, there is a dire need to carry out thorough preventive maintenance of these buildings cooling towers. This will prevent the possible outbreak of diseases like Legionella.

Reports and studies from the CDC corroborate a likelihood of legionella bacteria growing in buildings left unoccupied or unused for a long time in both the potable water systems and HVAC systems and cooling towers. It is noteworthy that legionella bacteria grows in stagnant water bodies, which is the characteristic of water in an unused cooling tower.

This is a wake-up call to Facility managers and HVAC professionals to swing into action to eliminate the possible outbreak of legionella disease. As a start, an adequate legionella risk assessment must be carried out before re-opening any building, especially those with an installed cooling tower, to ensure that water and air quality are not compromised.

Legionella In A Post COVID World

According to an article published on ACS PUBLICATION, there is a considerable risk of legionella outbreak after the COVID-19 pandemic if adequate and appropriate measures are not put in place. New recommendations must be developed and implemented as post-COVID time sets to mitigate the risk of an outbreak. These acts will be similar to what was done after the H1N1 influenza pandemic.

These recommendations will enforce and ensure that no commercial building left unoccupied or unused during COVID is re-opened without proper and rigorous inspection. Besides, across much of the country, the winter season is gradually drawing the curtain. The warm season will set in soon. Remember that legionella bacteria love warm and stagnant unused water, particularly a feature of buildings with cooling towers during COVID.

The Latest Legionella Outbreak

The need to take necessary precautions and appropriate legionella risk management measures cannot be over-emphasized. In Union County, New Jersey,  fourteen cases of legionella disease have been reported and confirmed with one death. Records showed that these cases were reported between February 3rd and February 26th.

In fact, the New Jersey Department of Health is currently investigating the outbreak’s source to prevent future occurrences. Currently, the department’s official, alongside local health workers, has identified some legionella bacteria sources and is working to neutralize and curb the growth and spread.

Legionella in Stagnant Water

How To Protect Against Legionella

An unfortunate truth is that little to or no attention is paid to the maintenance of cooling towers and water treatment in them as long as they are functioning properly.

To prevent the outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease within cooling towers, you should follow a few tips for cooling tower maintenance:

  •  Monthly inspection

It is essential to keep an eye on the water in cooling towers to check any irregularities such as scale, sediments, etc. Moreover, as we approach the warmer season, inspecting twice a month is advisable to be on the safe side and remain to rest assured of the water’s purity.

  •  Treat the Water

Water in cooling towers should be treated with a variety of antiscalant and antibacterials to manage the quality and risk of legionella and other bacterial growth. A variety of water treatment companies are available to tackle this important task on an ongoing basis. But water treatment alone is not enough. Constant maintenance and cleaning are required too.

  •  Removal of Stagnant Water

After a long period of not using a cooling tower, stagnant water should be flushed out totally and replaced with fresh water. Stagnant water might harbor legionella bacteria already without you knowing.

  •  Clean the Fill

We have learned that stagnant water can breed legionella bacteria; therefore, cleaning the fill to remove slime and scale in cooling towers must not be overlooked. Cleaning the fill allows for better flow and reduces the tendency of growth of mold and bacteria. Additionally, cleaning of tower basins is essential to remove food sources from bacteria and keep heat exchanger tubes clean.

  •  Proper Water temperature

The Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) provides several recommendations on how to prevent Legionnaires’ disease in cooling towers. Perhaps the most crucial piece of advice is to keep the temperature of the sump water below 68 degrees Fahrenheit at all times.

  •  Surface Disinfection

Disinfection with an EPA registered antimicrobial product, labeled explicitly for HVAC use, should be used to clean surfaces of all HVAC systems and add-ons. This can help keep microorganisms from flourishing between cleaning cycles.

  •  Clean Basin Surfaces

Cleaning the basin of a cooling tower eliminates the places where harmful bacteria grow. Although basin cleaning can be a part of the monthly maintenance schedule, preventing the growth of Legionella requires a thorough basin cleaning at least once every two weeks.

Guides To Follow

Also see ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 188-2018, Legionellosis: Risk Management for Building Water Systems. Which clarifies compliance requirements, and is updated throughout with enforceable, code-intended language to facilitate the adoption of the standard for code and regulatory purposes.

When used in conjunction with Standard 188-2018, Guideline 12-2020 – Minimizing the Risk of Legionellosis Associated with Building Water Systems can provide prescriptive guidance for operators of water management systems to control legionellosis in building water systems.

Next Steps:

The CDC recently published a toolkit to reduce the growth and spread of Legionella bacteria.

Read more about preventing Legionella in Cooling Towers.

Discover our Cooling Tower Cleaning Solutions

Learn about Cooling Tower Fill Descaling

 

 

 

The Importance of a Legionella Maintenance Program in Cooling Towers

Closed due to Legionella

Two recent events in Atlanta, Georgia, underscores the importance of following a maintenance program for cooling towers to prevent the development of Legionella.

The first outbreak of Legionella happened at the Sheraton Atlanta in July of 2019. Six months later, more than 50 claims filed against the hotel prompted the parent company to file a lawsuit in Fulton County Superior Court. Attorney Jeffrey Diamond said, “It’s a type of a lawsuit called declaratory judgment in which the parties to an insurance policy-the insureds and the insurance companies- are going to litigate whether or not there is coverage for the claims of the people who are alleged to have been injured by the Legionella outbreak.”

In early August of 2020, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) closed several of its building located in Atlanta because a team of inspectors discovered Legionella bacteria in the water system. The bacteria most likely grew during the extended Coronavirus pandemic lockdown.

The CDC issued a statement that read, “During the recent closures at our leased space in Atlanta, working through the General Services Administration (GSA), CDC directed the landlord to take protective actions. Despite their best efforts, CDC has been notified that Legionella, which can cause ‘Legionnaires’ Disease, is present in some water sources in the buildings.” Since discovering the bacteria, the CDC shut down the facilities until the remediation project concludes.

What is ‘Legionnaires’ Disease?

A group of research biologists found Legionella bacteria among many attendees at a 1976 convention held in Philadelphia. The bacteria collect to create ‘Legionnaires’ disease, which patients contract by breathing water vapors that contain the bacteria. People over the age of 50, especially those with underlying lung problems, are the most vulnerable to the disease. Severe symptoms include the inability to breathe correctly, with around 15 percent of cases resulting in death. Other symptoms of the disease are acute fatigue and a persistent cough.

Cooling Towers and ‘Legionnaires’ Disease

What is the direct connection between legionnaires’ disease and a cooling tower? The answer lies in understanding cooling towers, as well as cooling tower maintenance.

Cooling towers operate as a part of an HVAC or process cooling system, typically for industrial infrastructures. Considered cost-effective and energy-efficient cooling centers operate in buildings that include schools, hospitals, industrial plants, and office buildings. Because they hold large quantities of water, cooling towers can produce Legionella bacteria if the systems do not receive regularly scheduled maintenance and have ineffective water treatment programs.

Maintenance Tips to Prevent Legionella Growth in Cooling Towers

Because of the large size, cooling towers are considered difficult to clean. However, to prevent the outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease withing cooling towers, you should follow a few tips for cooling tower maintenance.

Conduct Monthly Inspections

Inspecting cooling towers at least once a month helps identify areas where scale, biofilm, and sediment buildup occur. These are hotspots for Legionella to flourish. During the warmer months of the year, consider changing to a bi-weekly schedule of cooling tower maintenance.

Clean Basin Surfaces

Cleaning the basin of a cooling tower eliminates the places where harmful bacteria grow. Although basin cleaning can be a part of the monthly maintenance schedule, preventing the growth of Legionella requires a thorough basin cleaning at least once every two weeks. Attaching a powerful water filter can prevent the development of harmful slime.

Treat the Water

Contracting with a certified water treatment company should keep the water flowing through a cooling tower in pristine condition. Treatments like biocides can prevent the production of dangerous Legionella bacteria. Look at a water treatment program as one part of your cooling tower maintenance program, not a strategy that you should depend on by itself to prevent the outbreak of ‘Legionnaires’ disease.

Proper Sump Water Temperature

The Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) provides several recommendations on how to prevent Legionnaires’ disease in cooling towers. Perhaps the most crucial advice is to keep the temperature of the sump water below 68 degrees Fahrenheit at all times.

Remove Stagnant Water

Stagnant water represents the ideal spot for bacteria, such as Legionella, to grow. By conducting dead leg and side-arm piping, you should eliminate stagnant water from a cooling tower.

Reduce the Drift Rate

A contaminated mist that forms within a cooling tower can enter the respiratory system of anyone sitting or standing next to a cooling tower. Using a mist eliminator should be a priority on your cooling tower maintenance list.

Clean the Fill

Cleaning the fill not only eliminates scale and slime, but it also enhances the flow of water inside a cooling tower. Control the growth of mold and bacteria such as Legionella by cleaning a cooling tower fill at least once a month.

Disinfect the Surfaces

Once surfaces have been cleaned, consider disinfecting with an EPA registered antimicrobial product, labeled explicitly for HVAC use. This can help keep microorganisms from flourishing between cleaning cycles.

Two more tips to complete the list of tasks for cooling tower maintenance. First, always wear protective equipment when cleaning a system to prevent the breathing of harmful Legionella bacteria. Second, always keep records of completed maintenance on cooling towers.

The Bottom Line

The two outbreaks of Legionella bacteria emphasize the importance of implementing preventive maintenance techniques on water systems, especially the vital water system component called cooling towers. A cooling tower maintenance product like the CTV-1501 and BioSpray Tower can prevent Legionella bacteria from tarnishing your ‘company’s hard-earned positive reputation.

CTV-1501 Towervac® Cooling Tower Vacuum eliminates bacteria like Legionella. The powerful suction of the vacuum removes mud, slime, and algae, which are contaminants that allow Legionella to flourish. You do not have to drain the entire water system, which saves time and prevents water loss.

As a complementary tool to prevent the development of Legionella bacteria, the BioSpray Tower works well on non-porous surfaces. The disinfectant kills 99.9% of the Legionella that develops in cooling towers.

 

Next Steps:

Find your perfect solution with our Complete Cooling Tower Maintenance Solutions from Goodway

Learn about Cooling Tower Fill Descaling

Get tips on Preventing Health Risks from Contamination in Cooling Towers

 

 

Assessing the Indoor Health of Your Building

Indoor air quality is one of the most important characteristics that describe the health of a building and the corresponding health of its inhabitants. People now spend more of their time inside than at any other time in history, and it is vitally important that the indoor air that they breath meet a standard quality that does not compromise their health, productivity, or sense of well-being.

Facility managers and owners are responsible for the health of their buildings and responsible for exposing their inhabitants to safe conditions. Never has the importance of keeping the air they “manufacture” so vital. Organizations like the Environmental Protection Agency recognize the importance of indoor air quality and the overall health of buildings, as well as the need to create standards for buildings in order to prevent “sick buildings” from existing. To fill this need, the EPA conducted the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study, which took in data from public and commercial buildings across the United States to create a set of standards to analyze the health of buildings.  

The BASE Study 

To conduct the BASE Study, the EPA collected data that focused on three major areas of indoor air quality. These areas are:

  1. Environmental and comfort measurements
  2. Building and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems characterization
  3. Building occupant demographics, symptoms, and perceptions 

The study collected data from 100 randomly selected buildings in 37 cities and 25 states. It then created a composite database of survey data to characterize the indoor air quality conditions across the United States. 

Whole Building Physical Characteristics

The entire BASE report summarizes the data is collected across two major characteristics. These characteristics were: whole building physical characteristics and whole building pollutant sources. 

The whole building’s physical characteristics data considered multiple different building features and attributes that would contribute to the understanding of the current conditions of air quality inside buildings in the United States. Building age was the first attribute considered and it varied across a wide spectrum from buildings built before 1900 to those constructed in the 1990s. The majority of BASE studied buildings were constructed in the 1980s. 

Building size, to include representative statistics like the number of total occupants were collected, as was the square footage of each building to include physical footprint square footage and floor area. An additional consideration as part of the physical characteristics was the number of stories in the building, with the majority of buildings being 10 stories or less. 

A final statistic considered for the physical characteristics of a building was the number of operable windows in the building. Operable windows are important to indoor air quality management as they can provide an additional means of ventilation that removes load requirements from HVAC equipment. However, facility managers need to make sure that outside systems are operating well. For example, dirty cooling towers can harbor dangerous bacteria, and if left uncleaned and maintained can infect the very air being brought back into the building via natural venting. 

Whole Building Pollutant Sources

Each building in the BASE study had information collected that quantified the number of potential polluting sources that could have an impact on the building in terms of indoor air quality. The polluting sources tracked were specialty use spaces, water damaged areas, fire damage areas, and pest control areas. 

Information was also collected on the HVAC systems in each building, specifically, the HVAC strategy was recorded for each subject. The HVAC strategy of a building encompasses its ventilation strategy, building cooling system strategy, and building heating system strategy. 

The final aspect of the whole building analysis conducted was on the environmental parameters inside the building, specifically focusing on the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Volatile organic compounds are chemical compounds that make up most of the indoor products and material coatings that exist in buildings. Some volatile organic compounds can be dangerous at certain concentrations and need to be monitored by facility managers. 

Who is at Risk in an Unhealthy Building?

Facility managers and building managers should be concerned about the well-being of all their occupants, but some building occupants could be more susceptible than others. Children in particular experience higher rates of exposures than adults do inside “sick buildings.” Children breathe in more air per pound of body weight than most adults, and so might be inhaling indoor air contaminants at a higher rate than adults. The immune systems of children are also not necessarily as developed as those in adults, and so infants are particularly more susceptible to the adverse effects of poor air quality. Age, nutrition, metabolism, exposure levels, pre-existing conditions, and other adverse health factors can also make an individual more susceptible to the indoor air quality inside a “sick building.”

What is the Cost of an Unhealthy Building?

Unhealthy buildings not only have a societal impact on the health of occupants, but they also can impact the bottom line of building owners and business owners operating inside the building. Without proper maintenance and monitoring, an unhealthy building allowed to operate continually in poor condition can have significant costs in energy usage, maintenance downtime, and financial loss due to equipment replacement and productivity losses. Want another consideration? Legal risks to building owners.

Solutions for Preventative Maintenance to Improve the Health of a Building

There are simple solutions and maintenance management plans that can be instituted inside a building to improve and stabilize the indoor air quality. Goodway has numerous products and suggestions for managing the interior environment of buildings. 

Buildings need to be kept dry, clean, and well ventilated to maintain an environment of fresh, safe air and to reduce the presence of polluting materials or chemicals in the building. The BASE Study highlights numerous factors that buildings in its study had which contributed to poor building health. Keeping a building safe, free of contaminants, and pest free are simple ways to avoid some of the pitfalls of poor maintenance and “sick buildings.” 

Goodway has numerous product guides and management plans available, along with experienced professionals ready to provide expert advice on its website. Preventative maintenance is one of the best methods for maintaining a healthy building, and facility managers can turn to Goodway for best practices and assistance in achieving this goal. 

 

Next Steps:

See why Regular Cleaning Is The Key To HVAC Efficiency Success

Read the Ten Steps to Operational Efficiency

Get the facts on keeping your ducts clean

Learn best practices for preventing the growth of mold

Your Facility is Covered in Germs: What Does This Mean for a Facility Manager

Facility managers have a vital job. They responsible for ensuring the safe and effective operation and maintenance of a facility and it’s infrastructure, including the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems in the wake of any virus outbreak. Key organizations in the world health field like the Center for Disease Control and World Health Organization are continually trying to update the global understanding of how exactly the COVID-19 virus is transported from person to person. ASHRAE has released proactive guidance to address the COVID-19 outbreak from a facility management perspective, and it is important for facility managers across the country to be in tune with the messaging.

ASHRAE COVID-19 Preparedness

ASHRAE has recognized that healthy buildings are part of the solution to maintain safe and healthy internal environments for building occupants. ASHRAE published official COVID-19 Preparedness Resources which serve as guidance to building owners, operators, and engineers on best measures and plans for protecting occupants.

As an airborne infectious disease, COVID-19 poses a potential risk to HVAC facility equipment. While little is known for sure about the virus and its ability to travel via HVAC systems,  Facility managers need to vary the approaches they take for each different type of facility that they manage. Additionally, it may become a necessity to clean the entire system to mitigate any risk and to provide comfort to employees, guests, and visitors. Currently, health care facilities have criteria for ventilation design and operation in place to mitigate airborne transmission of infectious diseases. In health care facilities, ASHRAE measures and local airborne transmission prevention policies aim to reduce transmission by both direct and indirect contact between employees and facility infrastructure. However, outside of critical areas like operating rooms, or infectious disease areas, little is known.

Emergency Planning

For other types of facilities that may not be specifically designed for infectious airborne disease control, active measures can still be taken to strengthen HVAC equipment’s ability to maintain the safety of the internal environment and air quality. One of the best measures to prepare for the COVID-19 outbreak is to develop and enact emergency planning procedures that increase the resiliency of facilities.

Engineers and facility managers can significantly support the capacity and efforts of emergency planning by understanding the design, operations, and maintenance adequacy of buildings for which they are responsible. An understanding of the capabilities and shortfalls of the building systems is key in determining which areas to target in an emergency preparedness plan. A building management system may have the means to increase dilution ventilation, increase relative humidity, or quickly clean and sanitize and disinfect components (coils, plenums, condensate systems, ductwork, etc) in order to respond to a crisis or outbreak.[1]

In the case of an infection occurring in an enclosed space or area, it is critical for facility managers to act quickly and apply the emergency plans set in place to deal with the situation. In the case of an airborne respiratory infection such as COVID-19, there are four quick steps that ASHRAE has identified that facility managers can take to quickly address the situation.

Step 1: Supply clean air to other susceptible occupants in the facility. Susceptible occupants may be anyone in the immediate area or the same room as the infected person.

Step 2: Containing the contaminated air as best as possible and exhausting it to the outdoors. It is important that air from a space with a potential infection is not recycled throughout the rest of the facility.

Step 3: Diluting the air in a space with clean air from outdoors and by filtering any recirculated air.

Step 4: Cleaning and sanitizing the equipment, surfaces, and shared spaces within a room that was susceptible to a COVID-19 outbreak. During these times it is also important to clean and disinfect evaporator and air handler coils.

Proper ventilation ultimately is the best method that facility managers can take to protect the workers and personnel inside the buildings that they manage. Ventilation systems should be thoroughly checked to ensure that components are properly cleaned and that the right filtration units are in place to clean the airflow. During emergency maintenance consideration of using Merv Rate Filters 13 and above may be worth looking into.

Cleaning and Maintenance

The COVID-19 virus outbreak is an undeniable reason for facility managers to analyze, practice, and supplement the cleaning and maintenance plans of their facilities. Many industrial and commercial facilities are full of germs naturally, and standard maintenance plans should meet regular thresholds for cleanliness and regularity each time they are exercised.

Global pandemics like the COVID-19 virus outbreak present unique situations when facility managers need to double down on their maintenance and cleaning plans. Though the nature of transmission of the COVID-19 virus is still under study, there has already been a proven occurrence of community spreading of the virus. Community spreading means that people are often infected in the midst of their everyday lives and activities because they were in areas where another person was infected by the virus.

No matter what type of facility that you manage, Goodway has products, advice, and proven maintenance strategies that can ensure your building is in the best position to help prevent the spread of illness.

[1] https://www.ashrae.org/File%20Library/About/Position%20Documents/Airborne-Infectious-Diseases.pdf

Legionnaires Mandatory Testing: Is Your State Next?

Legionnaires disease is atypical pneumonia caused by a specific type of bacteria infecting the lungs. According to the CDC, each year, between 8,000 and 18,000 people are hospitalized with Legionnaires disease in the United States. [i] These cases are primarily from occupants of buildings with complex central air conditioning systems such as office buildings, hotels, and hospitals who breathe in aerosolized water containing the Legionella bacteria.

Signs of Legionnaires disease can remain hidden until they infect building occupants, and it is ultimately the responsibility of the building owner and management to protect occupants from infection. Some states across the country have adopted laws and regulations enforcing mandatory testing on buildings for signs of Legionnaires disease. In response to these regulations, and the general responsibility that building owners owe to their occupants, Legionnaires disease can best be prevented by creating and enforcing highly detailed and systematic water safety plans for buildings.

Where to Target Legionnaires Disease

The Legionella bacteria thrive in aquatic systems under particular conditions. Cooling towers used in industrial cooling systems, evaporative coolers, and hot water systems are the most important – and most obvious – location for a maintenance plan to target.

Cooling towers are often part of central air-cooling systems for large buildings that spread recycled and fresh air throughout the structure. Cooling towers have been found to cause almost half of the recorded outbreaks and the most outbreaks explicitly associated with the Legionnaires disease. If left unchecked, cooling towers can become a deadly health hazard when they support vital domestic and industrial water systems, heating, ventilation, and air condition systems.

How To Prevent Legionnaires Disease in Your Cooling Towers

The best method for preventing Legionnaire bacteria contamination in cooling towers is an aggressive cleaning plan paired with training, monitoring, and testing periodically throughout the year. OSHA suggests that Cooling towers should be cleaned and disinfected at least twice a year; before the initial start-up of the cooling season and after shut-down in the fall.[ii] Systems with heavy biofouling or high Legionella bacteria levels may require additional cleaning (see the Outbreak Response page for more information).

When system components and especially cooling towers go out of service for a period of time, it is critical for maintenance staff to seize the opportunity to clean the component or tower thoroughly. When new equipment is installed, it is vitally important that the new systems are cleaned and disinfected. Construction material residue can contribute to Legionella bacteria growth in new systems and equipment.

When cleaning cooling towers, it is critical that maintenance personnel follow specific steps and procedures to ensure the safe removal of bacteria-laden material, and possible disinfection of the surrounding surfaces. The two most vital safety steps to complete at the very beginning of the process are to shut off the cooling tower and to provide the proper protective equipment to the workers who are performing the cleaning. Once the cooling tower is off and maintenance workers are properly outfitted, the maintenance crew should start with the manual removal of mud, silt, and debris from the cooling tower basin. The Goodway CTV-1501 TowerVac® is a popular choice for industry professionals. Once the debris has been removed, any visible limescale deposits should be removed from the cooling tower fill using an acidic gel compound and spraying system. Finally, the disinfection of all exposed hard non-porous surfaces can be completed.

States Leading the Example

New York is leading the way in the regulation and fights against the prevalence of Legionnaires bacteria. According to the New York law, any building owner with a cooling tower is required to register their tower. All cooling towers on the New York State Cooling Tower Registry must be maintained and update registries every 90 days if the tower is operational.[iii]

Florida has made steps to follow New York along the path to policy, preventing the spread of Legionnaires disease. Florida Senator Joe Gruters, R- Sarasota introduced SB 1190, which is intended to protect the public from Legionnaires disease contracted from cooling towers by requiring owners to regularly clean, maintain, treat, sample, and report results. If a cooling tower contains Legionella growth, it must be reported to the health department, possibly requiring a public notification.

The decision of these two states to have mandatory testing for Legionnaire bacteria indirectly mandates the need for businesses to have comprehensive maintenance and prevention plans. Though these laws at first glance may seem to be added trouble for businesses, by regulating compliance, they are protecting business owners from severe outbreaks from occurring. Any severe outbreak that happened would be significantly more financially detrimental to property owners than the cost of running a maintenance plan.

Solutions for Targeting Legionella Build Up

Reducing and preventing Legionnaire disease requires strict adherence to a maintenance plan. Numerous companies and building owners have already developed the right policies and procedures, but it is essential for those remaining to improve. Goodway has multiple tools and equipment that can help you establish and maintain a maintenance plan. Some of the tools that Goodway offers include a BioSpray Tower cooling disinfectant, the CTV-1501 Cooling Tower Vacuum, installing the cooling tower water fill station, utilizing the cooling tower filter system, and the cooling tower fill cleaner.

 

[i] Legionellosis – United States, 2000—2009Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 60(32), 1083-1086 (2011).

[ii] https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_iii/otm_iii_7.html

[iii] https://www.health.ny.gov/environmental/water/drinking/legionella/cooling_towers.htm

 

Next Steps:

Watch our webinar on Cooling Towers.

Read more on Quick and Easy Removal of Cooling Tower Fill Deposits.

Discover all Goodway’s Cooling Tower Cleaning Products.

Problems with Scale, General Fouling, and Bacteria in your Cooling Towers? Get Tips & Tricks.

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